I really did not intend this blog to become a repository of Haskell code snippets, but I’ve been rather busy as of late, and writing toy code while waiting for a compile to finish has somehow become my primary means of entertainment. Here is the latest.

Arithmetic coding is a remarkably simple and clever thing. The idea is that given some half-open interval [a,b), that is, the interval a <= x < b, we can partition it into half-open subintervals, such that there is one subinterval per character in the message to be encoded, and the lengths correspond to the character frequencies multiplied by b-a. The same procedure is applied, recursively, to each subinterval, resulting in an infinite hierarchy of coverings of the original interval — call it S. Now, if we throw a rock at S, record the point where it hit, and follow the interval hierarchy, we’ll come up with a unique infinite string of characters.

To construct the actual encoding, set S to [0,1), and find out which subinterval S_1 the first character of the message falls into. For the second character, let S_2 be the appropriate subinterval of S_1, for the third character, let S_3 be the appropriate subinterval of S_2, and so on; if we repeat this procedure as many times as there are characters, we’ll arrive at some interval S_n. Numbers that fall in this interval have a useful property: given any such number, call it x, we have x in S_{n-1} (since x is in S_n, and S_n is a subinterval of S_{n-1}), x in S_{n-2} by the same argument, and, by induction, in every subinterval that we picked while encoding the message. Any such x, therefore, uniquely encodes the message: to decode, simply follow the hierarchy.

*Arith> encodeToStream “encodeToStream returns a pair of lists of bytes, represe

nting the numerator and denominator, respectively.”

([174,77,70,217,88,196,42,26,75,253,160,72,114,92,77,135,32,165,50,80,55,77,233,

103,172,90,177,4],[211,29,119,249,50,167,209,90,128,245,114,158,13,236,212,196,1

1,81,64,169,125,254,83,235,75,2,30,13])

*Arith> encode “testing testing testing”

(23,[(' ',(0%1,2%23)),('e',(2%23,5%23)),('g',(5%23,8%23)),('i',(8%23,11%23)),('n

',(11%23,14%23)),('s',(14%23,17%23)),('t',(17%23,1%1))],3430733247%4363211066)

*Arith> (decode . encode . decode . encode) “testing testing testing”

“testing testing testing”

*Arith> encode (concat $ replicate 500 “abcd”)

(2000,[('a',(0%1,1%4)),('b',(1%4,1%2)),('c',(1%2,3%4)),('d',(3%4,1%1))],9%85)

The last test shows the output of ‘encode’ : the length of the message is 2000 characters, this is followed by character distributions (in a practical setting, frequencies would be returned instead of explicit intervals), and finally the encoded message. The entire 2000 byte string is encoded in the fraction 9/85.

Toy code follows. As mentioned earlier, ‘encodeToStream’ is a helper function that breaks the fraction into a pair of lists of bytes; the actual encoder and decoder consist of just ‘encode’, ‘decode’ and ‘freqRanges’, weighing in at 23 lines of code including type annotations and line breaks. Gotta love Haskell.

{-# OPTIONS -fglasgow-exts #-}moduleArithwhereimportRatioimportData.ListimportData.MaybeimportData.Charimportqualified Data.MapasMtypeRangeMap k a = [(k, (Ratio a, Ratio a))] encode :: (Ord k, Integral a) => [k] -> (Int, RangeMap k a, Rational) encode msg = (length msg, M.assocs freqMap, best $ foldl pair (0,1) rmap)wherefreqMap = freqRanges msg rmap = map (\x -> fromJust $ M.lookup x freqMap) msg best (a,b) = approxRational ((b+a)/2) ((b-a)/2) pair (a,b) (x,y) = ((b-a)*x+a, (b-a)*y+a) decode :: (Ord a, Integral a) => (Int, RangeMap k a, Ratio a) -> [k] decode (n, freqs, code) = take n $ decode' codewherefindChar x = find (\(c, (a,b)) -> (x >= a) && (x < b)) freqs decode' code =let(Just (c, (x, y))) = findChar codeinc:decode' ((code-x) / (y-x)) freqRanges :: (Ord k, Integral a) => [k] -> M.Map k (Ratio a, Ratio a) freqRanges str = snd $ M.mapAccum (\acc x -> (acc + x, (acc, acc + x))) 0 freqswherefreqs = M.map (\p -> p % total) occurences occurences = foldl (\m c -> M.insertWith (+) c 1 m) M.empty str total = sum (M.elems occurences) encodeToStream msg =let(len, freqs, code) = encode msg (num, denom) = (numerator code, denominator code) bytes n = unfoldr (\k ->ifk == 0thenNothingelseJust (rem k 256, quot k 256)) nin(bytes num, bytes denom)

## 4 Comments

Thanks for the post! I’ve always found arithmetic coding fascinating in a beautifully simple sort of way. My desire to read your code just might finally get me around to figuring out Haskell, which has been on my to-do list for a while.

See also:

http://web.comlab.ox.ac.uk/oucl/work/jeremy.gibbons/publications/index.html#arith

for another implementation in Haskell.

Michael:

Definitely check out Haskell. Prettiest language there is, really.

Johan:

“Arithmetic Coding with Folds and Unfolds” is excellent, although its apparent aim was to produce something that is actually robust and useful, develop a fair bit of theory along the way, and, in short, provide a great example of an expository paper. My post was more along the lines of “eh, I’ve never written a arithmetic coder, before, let’s tr… ooh, I can use Ratio!”

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